Known for its cozy fragrance that’s a mix of sweet and spicy-hot all at once, cinnamon is a spice-rack staple. But warm and spicy cinnamon can hold the promise of much more than holiday baking – especially if you are diabetic. Known for its strong anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, cinnamon (both Ceylon and cassia varieties) is increasingly being explored as an alternative remedy for diabetes. Here’s how the research stacks up in cinnamon’s favor.
Lowers Blood Sugar Levels And Improves Glycemic Control
Although research on the effects of cinnamon on blood sugar is not yet definitive, what has emerged is promising. As a meta-analysis that looked at 8 previous studies showed, cinnamon showed potential in lowering blood sugar in diabetics. When subjects were given either whole cinnamon or a cinnamon extract, it resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar levels, prompting the researchers to say that cinnamon could be a useful alternative therapy for people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes.1 The type of cinnamon was not specified in this case.
[pullquote]While the research on cinnamon’s ability to combat diabetes on various fronts is promising, we still need more long-term trials in humans to establish its effectiveness and safety. But studies do show that it has the potential to be a useful add-on therapy in managing type 2 diabetes.2[/pullquote]
Another meta-analysis of 11 studies found similar results. When type 2 diabetics were given cinnamon supplements in doses ranging from 120 to 6,000 mg/day for 4–16 weeks (depending on the study), all studies reported some reduction in fasting blood sugar levels. Of the 11 studies, 7 used cassia cinnamon, 1 used Ceylon cinnamon, while 3 did not specify if Ceylon or cassia cinnamon was used.
All 11 studies also reported a positive impact on Hb1Ac levels, a measure which helps indicate what your blood sugar level range has been in the last 2–3 months. When glucose accumulates in the blood, it binds to hemoglobin that is present in the red blood cells (RBCs) and stays bound to these until the RBCs eventually die (after 3 months). Testing for glycated hemoglobin thus gives a good sense of your glucose control over 3 months. The reduction in Hb1Ac levels in all 11 studies indicates that taking cinnamon not only has an immediate impact on sugar levels but may also translate to better glycemic control overall.3
However, what also needs to be noted is that only 4 of the 11 studies achieved reductions in line with the American Diabetes Association’s diabetes treatment goals. There have also been other studies where the results have not been so clear-cut.
Mimics Insulin And Boosts Insulin Sensitivity
When you have type 2 diabetes, the body’s response to the insulin hormone is compromised. This results in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and elevated levels of glucose in the blood. Animal and lab studies have shown that cinnamon can effectively mimic insulin and even make the insulin in the body more efficient. This, in turn, improves insulin sensitivity in the body, helps body cells respond better to insulin, and facilitates smoother glucose transport. Thus cinnamon has potential as an alternative remedy not only for diabetics but also for people with pre-diabetes or who show initial signs of insulin resistance.4 5 Human studies confirm this – as one small study found, during two 14-day interventions, when subjects were given 3 gm of cinnamon per day, they saw an improvement in insulin sensitivity and glycemic control.6
Components like chromium and polyphenols in cinnamon are thought to be responsible for this effect.7 A chemical compound called methylhydroxychalcone polymer (MHCP) in cinnamon is especially thought to be responsible for its insulin-mimicking activity. Studies show that MHCP has the same biological activity as insulin itself. It increases the uptake of blood sugar by cells and stimulates the synthesis of glycogen.8
May Lower Blood Sugar Levels After Meals
You may not realize it when you’re enjoying a big meal, but your blood sugar levels tend to spike significantly after you’ve eaten, especially if it is a carbohydrate-heavy meal. These fluctuations in blood sugar levels increase the risk of chronic diseases like diabetes as well as aggravate the condition if you already have it. This is because they increase your body’s levels of inflammation and oxidative stress.
Some studies indicate that taking cinnamon alongside a carb-heavy meal may slow down the rate at which food empties out of the stomach and helps control spikes in blood sugar levels after a meal.9 10 Other studies have suggested that cinnamon may play a role in blocking the digestive enzymes that break down carbohydrates in the small intestine, thereby lowering blood sugar levels after a meal.11 12 More extensive human trials are needed to confirm this effect, though.
Chronic inflammation is often a major trigger for diabetes and can even lead the way to other health problems if you already have diabetes. Cinnamon helps cut inflammation in the body thanks to its abundance of flavonoids. This anti-inflammatory effect of cinnamon plays a significant role not only in reducing metabolic problems but also in preventing further health complications due to diabetes.13
Cinnamon’s antioxidant benefits also come in handy for diabetics. Not only does oxidative stress, a type of cell damage caused by free radicals, play a role in the onset of diabetes, but diabetics are often more to prone to oxidative stress.14 15 Cinnamon’s antioxidant effect reduces oxidative stress and breaks this vicious cycle, helping you manage the condition better.16
Reduces Risk Of Diabetic Complications
Thanks to its ability to cut inflammation, control uncontrolled sugar levels, and prevent sudden spikes, cinnamon may be able to stop a range of complications associated with diabetes in their tracks.
People with diabetes are at a higher risk of developing heart disease. Cinnamon is often recommended as part of an overall heart healthy-diet for preventing coronary artery disease because it is rich in antioxidants and cuts inflammation.17 Its positive impact on cholesterol levels and blood pressure (as you’ll see next) also helps reduce the risk of heart disease and atherosclerosis.
One review of studies among type 2 diabetics showed that cinnamon was associated with an average decrease in LDL cholesterol as well as triglycerides.18 The same analysis also showed a link between cinnamon and an increase in HDL cholesterol.
Cinnamon may have an inhibitory effect on HMG-CoA reductase, the enzyme responsible for producing cholesterol, thanks to a component called cinnamase. It might thus be a promising alternative remedy for hyperlipidemia or high cholesterol and triglyceride levels, a condition many diabetics struggle with.19
High Blood Pressure
Cinnamon is increasingly being recognized as a supplementary dietary option to regulate blood pressure levels. As one clinical trial showed, supplementation with cinnamon significantly lowered both systolic and diastolic blood pressure among people with type 2 diabetes.20 Cinnamaldehyde, a compound found in cinnamon, helps with the dilation of blood vessels (vasodilatation), which in turn eases high blood pressure.21
Uncontrolled diabetes and the resulting elevated sugar levels in the body can damage many of your organs, including the brain. No wonder that research is uncovering a stronger link between diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In fact, AD is increasingly being referred to as type 3 diabetes, with studies suggesting that the condition represents a form of diabetes mellitus that specifically afflicts the brain.22 Research suggests that cinnamon extract may modulate the activity of beta-amyloid and tau proteins which are routinely linked to the development of AD. While further studies are needed to establish this link, cinnamon’s dual action here, against both diabetes and AD, is promising.23 24
Which Type of Cinnamon Is Better: Cassia or Ceylon?
Cinnamon comes in two varieties – Cassia and Ceylon, both derived from the inner bark of the Cinnamomum tree. Cassia or Chinese cinnamon is generally inexpensive and easily available. This is the type of cinnamon that you are more likely to find in the spice aisle of your supermarket as well as in many food products. Ceylon or true cinnamon is less commonly found than cassia and is typically more expensive. Ceylon cinnamon bark looks like tightly rolled scrolls and is soft and brittle, while cassia cinnamon is hard and thick and has only one roll or curled layer. Ceylon cinnamon is also lighter in color than cassia.
[pullquote]Tea is a great – and very refreshing – way to consume cinnamon. For an invigorating cup of cinnamon tea, take a three-inch long cinnamon stick and break it into smaller pieces. Let this steep in 1.5 cups of boiling water for about 15 minutes. Strain the tea and enjoy your healthy cinnamon brew! Cinnamon tea is an especially good way to take cinnamon because the toxic compound coumarin gets left behind in the tea sediment.[/pullquote]
While studies on diabetes have used both cassia and Ceylon varieties, many researchers don’t differentiate between the two or specify which one they have used. Nor has it been established if one type is better than the other when it comes to diabetes management. In all likelihood, both may have similar benefits. But one downside to consider is the high coumarin content in cassia cinnamon. This anticoagulant can even damage the liver when used in large quantities.25 Ceylon cinnamon, on the other hand, has only negligible traces of this compound.26 So, while dietary intake of cassia cinnamon (as an ingredient in your food or as seasoning) is fine, it may be a better idea to stick to Ceylon cinnamon for larger therapeutic doses or as supplements. People with liver problems should avoid cassia cinnamon altogether.
How Much Cinnamon Should You Take?
While a recommended dosage has not been established, most studies typically use between 1 and 6 gm of the powder per day. But remember that coumarin content is a factor you have to be wary of. The European Food Safety Authority has set the tolerable daily intake for coumarin at 0.1 mg/kg.27 Coumarin content in cassia cinnamon could vary anywhere between 2 and 7 gm per kg.28 So it would be better to stick to the lower end of the spectrum and have no more than 1 or 2 gm if cassia cinnamon is used.
If you are taking medication for diabetes, you must consult your doctor before including cinnamon or cinnamon supplements on a regular basis. It could interact with other medication or cause blood sugar levels to drop drastically (hypoglycemia). Similarly, if you are on other medication such as blood thinners, take your doctor’s advice before taking cinnamon supplements. Pregnant women, nursing mothers, and children should avoid therapeutic doses of cinnamon as its safety in these groups has not been established.
|↑1||Davis, Paul A., and Wallace Yokoyama. “Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis.” Journal of medicinal food 14, no. 9 (2011): 884-889.|
|↑2||Medagama, Arjuna B. “The glycaemic outcomes of Cinnamon, a review of the experimental evidence and clinical trials.” Nutrition Journal 14, no. 1 (2015): 108.|
|↑3||Costello, Rebecca B., Johanna T. Dwyer, Leila Saldanha, Regan L. Bailey, Joyce Merkel, and Edwina Wambogo. “Do cinnamon supplements have a role in glycemic control in type 2 diabetes? A narrative review.” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 116, no. 11 (2016): 1794-1802|
|↑4||Jarvill-Taylor, Karalee J., Richard A. Anderson, and Donald J. Graves. “A hydroxychalcone derived from cinnamon functions as a mimetic for insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 20, no.4 2001):327-336|
|↑5||Qin, B., Panickar, K. S., & Anderson, R. A. (2010). Cinnamon: potential role in the prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Journal of diabetes science and technology, 4(3), 685-693.|
|↑6||Solomon, Thomas PJ, and Andrew K. Blannin. “Changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity following 2 weeks of daily cinnamon ingestion in healthy humans.” European journal of applied physiology 105, no. 6 (2009): 969.|
|↑7||Anderson, Richard A. “Chromium and polyphenols from cinnamon improve insulin sensitivity: plenary lecture.” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 67, no. 1 (2008): 48-53|
|↑8||Jarvill-Taylor, Karalee J., Richard A. Anderson, and Donald J. Graves. “A hydroxychalcone derived from cinnamon functions as a mimetic for insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 20, no. 4 (2001): 327-336.|
|↑9||Hlebowicz, Joanna, Gassan Darwiche, Ola Björgell, and Lars-Olof Almér. “Effect of cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects–.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 85, no. 6 (2007): 1552-1556|
|↑10||Medagama, Arjuna B. “The glycaemic outcomes of Cinnamon, a review of the experimental evidence and clinical trials.” Nutrition Journal 14, no. 1 (2015): 108|
|↑11||Adisakwattana, Sirichai, Orathai Lerdsuwankij, Ubonwan Poputtachai, Aukkrapon Minipun, and Chaturong Suparpprom. “Inhibitory activity of cinnamon bark species and their combination effect with acarbose against intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase.” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 66, no. 2 (2011): 143-148.|
|↑12||Shihabudeen, H. Mohamed Sham, D. Hansi Priscilla, and Kavitha Thirumurugan. “Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats.” Nutrition & metabolism 8, no. 1 (2011): 46.|
|↑13||Hong, Joung-Woo, Ga-Eun Yang, Yoon Bum Kim, Seok Hyun Eom, Jae-Hwan Lew, and Hee Kang. “Anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon water extract in vivo and in vitro LPS-induced models.” BMC complementary and alternative medicine 12, no. 1 (2012): 237|
|↑14||Monnier, Louis, Emilie Mas, Christine Ginet, Françoise Michel, Laetitia Villon, Jean-Paul Cristol, and Claude Colette. “Activation of oxidative stress by acute glucose fluctuations compared with sustained chronic hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.” Jama 295, no. 14 (2006): 1681-1687|
|↑15||Matough, Fatmah A., Siti B. Budin, Zariyantey A. Hamid, Nasar Alwahaibi, and Jamaludin Mohamed. “The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in diabetic complications.” Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal 12, no. 1 (2012): 5.|
|↑16||Roussel, Anne-Marie, Isabelle Hininger, Rachida Benaraba, Tim N. Ziegenfuss, and Richard A. Anderson. “Antioxidant effects of a cinnamon extract in people with impaired fasting glucose that are overweight or obese.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 28, no. 1 (2009): 16-21.|
|↑17||O’Keefe, James H., Neil M. Gheewala, and Joan O. O’Keefe. “Dietary strategies for improving post-prandial glucose, lipids, inflammation, and cardiovascular health.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 51, no. 3 (2008): 249-255.|
|↑18||Allen, Robert W., Emmanuelle Schwartzman, William L. Baker, Craig I. Coleman, and Olivia J. Phung. “Cinnamon use in type 2 diabetes: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.” The Annals of Family Medicine 11, no. 5 (2013): 452-459.|
|↑19||Abeysekera, Walimuni Prabhashini Kaushalya Mendis, Sirimal Premakumara Galbada Arachchige, and Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya. “Bark extracts of Ceylon cinnamon possess antilipidemic activities and bind bile acids in vitro.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2017 (2017).|
|↑20||Akilen, Raj, A. Tsiami, Devasenan Devendra, and Nicola Robinson. “Glycated haemoglobin and blood pressure‐lowering effect of cinnamon in multi‐ethnic Type 2 diabetic patients in the UK: a randomized, placebo‐controlled, double‐blind clinical trial.” Diabetic Medicine 27, no. 10 (2010): 1159-1167.|
|↑21||Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara, and Siew Hua Gan. “Cinnamon: a multifaceted medicinal plant.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 (2014).|
|↑22||de la Monte, Suzanne M., and Jack R. Wands. “Alzheimer’s disease is type 3 diabetes—evidence reviewed.” Journal of diabetes science and technology 2, no. 6 (2008): 1101-1113.|
|↑23||Peterson, Dylan W., Roshni C. George, Francesca Scaramozzino, Nichole E. LaPointe, Richard A. Anderson, Donald J. Graves, and John Lew. “Cinnamon extract inhibits tau aggregation associated with Alzheimer’s disease in vitro.” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 17, no. 3 (2009): 585-597|
|↑24||Frydman-Marom, Anat, Aviad Levin, Dorit Farfara, Tali Benromano, Roni Scherzer-Attali, Sivan Peled, Robert Vassar et al. “Orally administrated cinnamon extract reduces β-amyloid oligomerization and corrects cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease animal models.” PloS one 6, no. 1 (2011): e16564.|
|↑25||Archer, Alan W. “Determination of cinnamaldehyde, coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography.” Journal of Chromatography A 447 (1988): 272-276.|
|↑26, ↑28||Blahová, Jana, and Zdeňka Svobodová. “Assessment of coumarin levels in ground cinnamon available in the Czech retail market.” The Scientific World Journal 2012 (2012).|
|↑27||European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). “Coumarin in flavourings and other food ingredients with flavouring properties‐Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC).” EFSA Journal 6, no. 10 (2008): 793.|