Your body has a natural mechanism to attack foreign bodies that can be harmful. Your immune system fights against pathogens, external injuries, or chemicals. The first such protective response of the immune system is inflammation. Redness, pain, swelling, and sometimes loss of function are the signs of acute inflammation.1
Causes of chronic inflammation
- Existing infection
- Autoimmune diseases
- Poor diet
Inflammation can occur even when you are not threatened by any foreign agent.2 While the exact causes are not yet known, this type of inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, lasts long and is dangerous, leading to major diseases like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, arthritis, and cancer. Whether you have inflammation in your body can be checked by measuring the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) in your body. CRP levels rise when there’s any inflammation.
What is the best way to protect your body from such inflammation? Making dietary changes to include anti-inflammatory foods in your menu.3 Here are 26 such anti-inflammatory foods that are beneficial to your health.
1. Green Leafy Vegetables
Make spinach, kale, and collards part of your diet. Their strength is the presence of flavonoids, which are biologically active polyphenolic antioxidants. They reduce the risk of inflammatory diseases.4
Moreover, these dark green vegetables contain vitamin K, which is capable of preventing inflammatory diseases.5 A research study has observed that high vitamin K can lower concentrations of inflammatory markers.6
The presence of sulforaphane, a chemical compound which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, equips broccoli to fight against inflammation.7 According to a research, in young male smokers, broccoli consumption may also reduce CRP levels, one of the best indicators of inflammation.8
3. Sweet Potatoes
Even the humble sweet potato could be good for you when it comes to inflammation. Animal studies have revealed that the purple sweet potato inhibits proinflammatory molecule production. This may be of significance when it comes to halting the progress of inflammatory brain disease.9
Quercetin has made a place for itself in the annals of anti-inflammatory foods of importance. Onions, rich in this flavonol, have this anti-inflammatory property as well.10
Known as one of the healthiest spices, ginger is rich in bioactive compounds that are beneficial to your body and brain. Gingerol, shogaol, and other structurally related substances in ginger restrain synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. They also inhibit prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis – both of which play a key role in the generation of an inflammatory response.11 So, include ginger in your diet to make use of its anti-inflammatory benefits.
If garlic is not yet an ingredient in your cooking, start using it. Garlic can modulate cytokine secretion, thus inhibiting inflammatory tendencies.12 It contains allicin, sulfur, and other antioxidants that can fight inflammation.13
According to a research, thiacremonone, a sulfur compound isolated from garlic, could even help in inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease.14
7. Bitter Melon
An acquired taste, the bitter melon contains phenolic compounds that have strong antioxidant power and are also anti-inflammatory and immune boosting.15
The anti-inflammatory activity of beetroot comes from its betalain pigments. They reduce the production of cytokines, thus, inhibiting inflammatory reactions.16 Various human studies have also reported that beetroot supplementation can minimize the effect of inflammation.17 Add this dash of red to your food now.
Lycopene, a natural carotenoid found in tomato, is an anti-inflammatory compound.18 A study has pointed out that consuming lycopene through whole food sources like tomato is more effective than lycopene supplements for lowering cardiovascular risks factors including oxidative stress and inflammation.19 However, more research studies are needed on the anti-inflammatory impact of tomatoes.
Bell peppers and chili peppers contain antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds.20 Capsaicin, a spicy component of chili peppers, is efficient in suppressing obesity-induced inflammation by modulating adipokine release.21 Adipokines are a type of inflammatory cytokines.
11. Fatty Fish
Being a dietary source of helpful polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fatty fish helps you fight inflammation.22 The omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA found in fish restrict inflammation by giving rise to anti-inflammatory mediators called resolvins.23 This, in turn, reduces the incidence of many chronic diseases that involve any inflammatory process.
Salmon, mackerel, tuna, and sardines are some of the fatty fish you can eat. The American Heart Association recommends eating fish, particularly fatty fish at least 2 times a week.24 But watch out for fishes with high levels of mercury, such as swordfish or shark, especially if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
12. Whole Grains
Given their anti-inflammatory effects, you should consume whole grains daily as part of your healthy diet. The whole grain consumption may reduce CRP, in turn, decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.25 A research study has concluded that the whole grains and a low-glycemic-index diet may reduce systemic inflammation among women with type 2 diabetes.26
13. Virgin Olive Oil
Virgin olive oil contains various phenolic compounds that exert anti-inflammatory actions. Oleocanthal, a phenolic compound found in virgin olive oil, has anti-inflammatory properties similar to ibuprofen, an anti-inflammatory drug.27 According to a study, the consumption of virgin olive oil may decrease inflammation, lowering the risk of atherosclerosis, a condition where arteries become clogged with fatty deposits.28
An overload of free radicals – highly reactive molecules left over from metabolic processes – may damage your cells and tissues, resulting in inflammation. Antioxidants can protect against inflammation caused by free radicals. This is the reason you should eat blueberries. Blueberries contain anthocyanins, which are widely known as powerful antioxidants.29
Apart from that, as a study suggests, daily consumption of blueberry for 6 weeks increases natural killer cells, which are a type of white blood cell and a component of the immune system.30 This promotes healthy functioning of the immune system, preventing unnecessary inflammation.
Pomegranate juice is a delicious hassle-free way to include an anti-inflammatory food in your diet. Its inflammation fighting ability has even been employed to treat hypertensive patients.31 Pomegranates contain phytochemicals that can help suppress inflammatory signalling in colon cancer cells. In other words, they could be important to prevent tumor cells from proliferating.32
The polyhydroxylated fatty alcohols (PFAS), polysterols, and flavonoids found in avocado are anti-inflammatory in nature. They help you stop the synthesis of prostaglandins, a significant contributor to inflammation.33 This is why avocados are recommended for people at risk of heart diseases and arthritis.
The phenolic compounds such as flavonols and procyanidins in grapes may help you reduce inflammation. A research has pointed out that procyanidins might inhibit proinflammation factors.34 The polyphenols in the muscadine variety of grapes are effective in reducing inflammation in the eye. This is why your mother told you to eat grapes for your eyes.
Bromelain, the enzyme complex unique to pineapple, can modulate inflammatory changes.35 It has immune-modulating abilities, by which it regulates the immune response, preventing unwanted inflammation.36
This delicious fruit has a modulatory effect on pro-inflammatory C-reactive protein and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted). RANTES is a member of the 8-kDa cytokine family, which can act as a mediator of acute and chronic inflammation. Thus, cherries are valuable for the management and prevention of inflammatory diseases.37
A research has suggested that daily consumption of tart cherries may attenuate inflammatory and oxidative responses to exercise-induced muscle damage, leading to faster recovery after exercise bouts.38
Is this your favorite snack? Well, good choice. These nutritious nuts are rich in the omega-3 fatty acid called alpha-linoleic acid which can lower the level of C-reactive protein, which increases in inflammatory diseases such as arthritis.39 They can also reduce free radical damage, which induces inflammation and puts the body under oxidative stress.40 Having walnuts will give you not just anti-inflammatory benefits but also many other benefits for your skin, hair, and overall health.
This is the most popular and powerful spice of all. But, how does it help you with inflammation? Curcumin, an antioxidant in turmeric, is responsible for its anti-inflammatory properties. Curcumin is capable of interacting with numerous molecular targets linked to inflammation.41 This agent can also regulate various factors like cytokines, redox status, and enzymes that are associated with inflammation.42
Cinnamon is now well-known for its ability to help you cut inflammation in the body, and many a remedy is available in books and online that incorporate the spice. Research backs this up, explaining that the flavonoid compounds like gossypin,quercetin, gnaphalin, hypolaetin, oroxindin, hesperidin, and hibifolin in cinnamon are responsible for its anti-inflammatory properties.43
23. Green Tea
You may have heard a lot about the health benefits of green tea. The polyphenols, particularly EGCG in green tea have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.44 Green tea can also reduce the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines45 and is beneficial to patients suffering from arthritis. A study has shown that older women drinking more than 3 cups of green tea a day had a significantly lower risk of rheumatoid arthritis compared to those who drank no tea.46 However, to get maximum benefits, you need to be aware of the best time to drink green tea.
24. Chrysanthemum Tea
A delicate cup of chrysanthemum tea may hardly seem like it has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory powers. But looks can be deceptive. This floral brew inhibits inflammatory pathways in your body, helping you dodge or battle problems like chronic inflammation.47
Edible mushrooms are well known for their nutritional qualities. They are rich in anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds like polysaccharides, terpenoids, and phenols.48
A study that looked into the anti-inflammatory activities of oyster mushroom concluded that they could be considered a dietary agent against inflammation.49 However, remember that the anti-inflammatory activity is high in raw mushroom preparations.50
26. Dark Chocolate
There is no harm in falling in love with this dessert as it helps you fight inflammation. It has a high concentration of flavonoids. Thus, regular consumption of small doses of dark chocolate may reduce inflammation.51
Flavonoid intake is also beneficial to patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols protect you against atherosclerosis, which is considered a low-grade inflammatory disease, that is inflammation caused by natural immune response.52
Foods That Trigger Inflammation
Besides knowing about anti-inflammatory foods, you should also identify those foods that cause it. Try to limit margarine, refined carbohydrates, red meat, and soda. A diet rich in sucrose or fructose may have an adverse effect on inflammation.53 According to a research, regular consumption of sugar-sweetened soda can increase the risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women.54
Keep these in mind as you prepare to fight inflammation:
- Avoid foods with partially hydrogenated oils or trans fats in the ingredient labels.
- Avoid gluten, excess omega-6 fatty acids from vegetable oils, and monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavor enhancer found in Asian dishes.55 These foods may aggravate the inflammation of joints.
- Dietary changes alone cannot promise you an inflammation-free life.
- Physical activity and moderate exercise are vital to prevent inflammation.56
- Chronic alcohol use may lead to persistent systemic inflammation.57
- Also, quit smoking.
Along with cleaning up your diet, make these healthy changes to your lifestyles to strengthen your immune system.
|↑1||What is an inflammation? US National Library of Medicine.|
|↑2||Chronic Inflammation. National Cancer Institute.|
|↑3||Foods that fight inflammation. Harvard Medical School.|
|↑4||Haytowitz, D. B., A. L. Eldridge, S. Bhagwat, S. E. Gebhardt, J. M. Holden, G. R. Beecher, J. Peterson, and J. Dwyer. “Flavonoid content of vegetables.” In International Research Conference on Food, Nutrition and Cancer. 17–18 July 2003, Washington, DC. 2003.|
|↑5||Dark Green Leafy Vegetables. United States Department of Agriculture.|
|↑6||Shea, M. Kyla, Sarah L. Booth, Joseph M. Massaro, Paul F. Jacques, Ralph B. D’agostino, Bess Dawson-Hughes, José M. Ordovas et al. “Vitamin K and vitamin D status: associations with inflammatory markers in the Framingham Offspring Study.” American journal of epidemiology 167, no. 3 (2008): 313-320.|
|↑7||Jang, Min-Woo, and Bae-Jin Ha. “Effects of broccoli on anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation according to extraction solvent.” Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety 27, no. 4 (2012): 461-465.|
|↑8||Riso, Patrizia, Stefano Vendrame, Cristian Del Bo’, Daniela Martini, Antonia Martinetti, Ettore Seregni, Francesco Visioli, Marina Parolini, and Marisa Porrini. “Effect of 10-day broccoli consumption on inflammatory status of young healthy smokers.” International journal of food sciences and nutrition 65, no. 1 (2014): 106-111.|
|↑9||Wang, Yong-Jian, Yuan-Lin Zheng, Jun Lu, Guo-Qing Chen, Xiao-Hui Wang, Jie Feng, Jie Ruan, Xiao Sun, Chun-Xiang Li, and Qiu-Ju Sun. “Purple sweet potato color suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced acute inflammatory response in mouse brain.” Neurochemistry international 56, no. 3 (2010): 424-430.|
|↑10||Nasri, Sima, Mahdieh Anoush, and Narges Khatami. “Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of fresh onion juice in experimental animals.” African journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 6, no. 23 (2012): 1679-1684.|
|↑11||Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri, Reza Ghiasvand, Gholamreza Askari, Mitra Hariri, Leila Darvishi, and Mohammad Reza Mofid. “Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of ginger in health and physical activity: review of current evidence.” International journal of preventive medicine 4 (2013).|
|↑12||Arreola, Rodrigo, Saray Quintero-Fabián, Rocío Ivette López-Roa, Enrique Octavio Flores-Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo Reyes-Grajeda, Lucrecia Carrera-Quintanar, and Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún. “Immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic compounds.” Journal of immunology research 2015 (2015).|
|↑13||Sather, Jennifer. Anti Inflammatory Diet [Second Edition]: Recipes for Arthritis and Other Inflammatory Disease. Speedy Publishing LLC, 2013.|
|↑14||Lin, Gui Hua, Young-Jung Lee, Dong-Young Choi, Sang Bae Han, Jae Kyung Jung, Bang Yeon Hwang, Dong Cheul Moon et al. “Anti-amyloidogenic effect of thiacremonone through anti-inflamation in vitro and in vivo models.” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 29, no. 3 (2012): 659-676.|
|↑15||Kubola, Jittawan, and Sirithon Siriamornpun. “Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) leaf, stem and fruit fraction extracts in vitro.” Food chemistry 110, no. 4 (2008): 881-890.|
|↑16||Martinez, Renata M., Daniela T. Longhi-Balbinot, Ana C. Zarpelon, Larissa Staurengo-Ferrari, Marcela M. Baracat, Sandra R. Georgetti, Rogério C. Sassonia, Waldiceu A. Verri, and Rubia Casagrande. “Anti-inflammatory activity of betalain-rich dye of Beta vulgaris: effect on edema, leukocyte recruitment, superoxide anion and cytokine production.” Archives of pharmacal research 38, no. 4 (2015): 494-504.|
|↑17||Clifford, Tom, Glyn Howatson, Daniel J. West, and Emma J. Stevenson. “The potential benefits of red beetroot supplementation in health and disease.” Nutrients 7, no. 4 (2015): 2801-2822.|
|↑18||Nielsen, Desiree. Un-Junk Your Diet: How to Shop, Cook, and Eat to Fight Inflammation and Feel Better Forever. Skyhorse Publishing, 2017.|
|↑19||Burton-Freeman, Britt M., and Howard D. Sesso. “Whole food versus supplement: comparing the clinical evidence of tomato intake and lycopene supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors.” Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal 5, no. 5 (2014): 457-485.|
|↑20||Zimmer, Aline Rigon, Bianca Leonardi, Diogo Miron, Elfrides Schapoval, Jarbas Rodrigues de Oliveira, and Grace Gosmann. “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Capsicum baccatum: from traditional use to scientific approach.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 139, no. 1 (2012): 228-233.|
|↑21||Kang, Ji-Hye, Chu-Sook Kim, In-Seob Han, Teruo Kawada, and Rina Yu. “Capsaicin, a spicy component of hot peppers, modulates adipokine gene expression and protein release from obese-mouse adipose tissues and isolated adipocytes, and suppresses the inflammatory responses of adipose tissue macrophages.” FEBS letters 581, no. 23 (2007): 4389-4396.|
|↑22||Wall, Rebecca, R. Paul Ross, Gerald F. Fitzgerald, and Catherine Stanton. “Fatty acids from fish: the anti-inflammatory potential of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.” Nutrition reviews 68, no. 5 (2010): 280-289.|
|↑23||Calder, Philip C. “n− 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 83, no. 6 (2006): S1505-1519S.|
|↑24||Fish and Omega-3 Fatty Acids. American Heart Association.|
|↑25||Masters, Rachel C., Angela D. Liese, Steven M. Haffner, Lynne E. Wagenknecht, and Anthony J. Hanley. “Whole and refined grain intakes are related to inflammatory protein concentrations in human plasma.” The Journal of nutrition 140, no. 3 (2010): 587-594.|
|↑26||Qi, Lu, Rob M. Van Dam, Simin Liu, Mary Franz, Christos Mantzoros, and Frank B. Hu. “Whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber intakes and markers of systemic inflammation in diabetic women.” Diabetes care 29, no. 2 (2006): 207-211.|
|↑27||Lucas, Lisa, Aaron Russell, and Russell Keast. “Molecular mechanisms of inflammation. Anti-inflammatory benefits of virgin olive oil and the phenolic compound oleocanthal.” Current pharmaceutical design 17, no. 8 (2011): 754-768.|
|↑28||Meza-Miranda, Eliana R., Oriol A. Rangel-Zúñiga, Carmen Marín, Pablo Pérez-Martínez, Javier Delgado-Lista, Carmen Haro, Patricia Peña-Orihuela et al. “Virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds modulates the expression of atherosclerosis-related genes in vascular endothelium.” European journal of nutrition 55, no. 2 (2016): 519-527.|
|↑29||Joseph, Shama V., Indika Edirisinghe, and Britt M. Burton-Freeman. “Berries: anti-inflammatory effects in humans.” Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 62, no. 18 (2014): 3886-3903.|
|↑30||McAnulty, Lisa S., David C. Nieman, Charles L. Dumke, Lesli A. Shooter, Dru A. Henson, Alan C. Utter, Ginger Milne, and Steven R. McAnulty. “Effect of blueberry ingestion on natural killer cell counts, oxidative stress, and inflammation prior to and after 2.5 h of running.” Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 36, no. 6 (2011): 976-984.|
|↑31||Asgary, Sedigheh, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Mohammad Reza Afshani, Mahtab Keshvari, Shaghayegh Haghjooyjavanmard, and Mahmoud Rafieian‐Kopaei. “Clinical Evaluation of Blood Pressure Lowering, Endothelial Function Improving, Hypolipidemic and Anti‐Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Juice in Hypertensive Subjects.” Phytotherapy Research 28, no. 2 (2014): 193-199.|
|↑32||Adams, Lynn S., Navindra P. Seeram, Bharat B. Aggarwal, Yasunari Takada, Daniel Sand, and David Heber. “Pomegranate juice, total pomegranate ellagitannins, and punicalagin suppress inflammatory cell signaling in colon cancer cells.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54, no. 3 (2006): 980-985.|
|↑33||Usman, M and John Davidson. The Health Benefits of Avocado – For Cooking and Health. Mendon Cottage Books, 2015.|
|↑34||Xia, En-Qin, Gui-Fang Deng, Ya-Jun Guo, and Hua-Bin Li. “Biological activities of polyphenols from grapes.” International journal of molecular sciences 11, no. 2 (2010): 622-646.|
|↑35||Taussig, Steven J., and Stanley Batkin. “Bromelain, the enzyme complex of pineapple (Ananas comosus) and its clinical application. An update.” Journal of ethnopharmacology 22, no. 2 (1988): 191-203.|
|↑36||Müller, Silke, Reinhard März, Manfred Schmolz, Bernd Drewelow, Klaus Eschmann, and Peter Meiser. “Placebo‐controlled randomized clinical trial on the immunomodulating activities of low‐and high‐dose bromelain after oral administration–new evidence on the antiinflammatory mode of action of bromelain.” Phytotherapy Research 27, no. 2 (2013): 199-204.|
|↑37||Kelley, Darshan S., Reuven Rasooly, Robert A. Jacob, Adel A. Kader, and Bruce E. Mackey. “Consumption of Bing sweet cherries lowers circulating concentrations of inflammation markers in healthy men and women.” The Journal of nutrition 136, no. 4 (2006): 981-986.|
|↑38||de Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello, Claudio de Oliveira Assumpção, Jonato Prestes, and Benedito Sérgio Denadai. “Consumption of cherries as a strategy to attenuate exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation in humans.” Nutr Hosp 32, no. 5 (2015): 1885-1893.|
|↑39||Rockefeller, JD. The Anti-inflammatory Diet: Eat to Reduce Inflammation and Pain. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2016|
|↑40||Kris-Etherton, Penny M. “Walnuts decrease risk of cardiovascular disease: a summary of efficacy and biologic mechanisms.” The Journal of nutrition 144, no. 4 (2014): 547S-554S.|
|↑41||Julie, S., and M. T. Jurenka. “Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent.” Alternative medicine review 14, no. 2 (2009).|
|↑42||Aggarwal, Bharat B., and Kuzhuvelil B. Harikumar. “Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin, the anti-inflammatory agent, against neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases.” The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 41, no. 1 (2009): 40-59.|
|↑43||Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara, and Siew Hua Gan. “Cinnamon: a multifaceted medicinal plant.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 (2014).|
|↑44||Tipoe, George L., Tung-Ming Leung, Ming-Wai Hung, and Man-Lung Fung. “Green tea polyphenols as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent for cardiovascular protection.” Cardiovascular & Haematological Disorders-Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets-Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders) 7, no. 2 (2007): 135-144.|
|↑45||Molina, N., A. P. Bolin, and R. Otton. “Green tea polyphenols change the profile of inflammatory cytokine release from lymphocytes of obese and lean rats and protect against oxidative damage.” International immunopharmacology 28, no. 2 (2015): 985-996.|
|↑46||Ho, Chi-Tang, Jen-Kun Lin, and Fereidoon Shahidi, eds. Tea and tea products: chemistry and health-promoting properties. CRC press, 2008.|
|↑47||Wu, Tien-Yuan, Tin Oo Khor, Constance Lay Lay Saw, Stephanie C. Loh, Alvin I. Chen, Soon Sung Lim, Jung Han Yoon Park, Li Cai, and Ah-Ng Tony Kong. “Anti-inflammatory/Anti-oxidative stress activities and differential regulation of Nrf2-mediated genes by non-polar fractions of tea Chrysanthemum zawadskii and licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis.” The AAPS journal 13, no. 1 (2011): 1-13.|
|↑48||Elsayed, Elsayed A., Hesham El Enshasy, Mohammad AM Wadaan, and Ramlan Aziz. “Mushrooms: a potential natural source of anti-inflammatory compounds for medical applications.” Mediators of inflammation 2014 (2014).|
|↑49||Jedinak, Andrej, Shailesh Dudhgaonkar, Qing-li Wu, James Simon, and Daniel Sliva. “Anti-inflammatory activity of edible oyster mushroom is mediated through the inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling.” Nutrition Journal 10, no. 1 (2011): 52.|
|↑50||Gunawardena, Dhanushka, Louise Bennett, Kirubakaran Shanmugam, Kerryn King, Roderick Williams, Dimitrios Zabaras, Richard Head, Lezanne Ooi, Erika Gyengesi, and Gerald Münch. “Anti-inflammatory effects of five commercially available mushroom species determined in lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ activated murine macrophages.” Food chemistry 148 (2014): 92-96.|
|↑51||Di Giuseppe, Romina, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, Floriana Centritto, Francesco Zito, Amalia De Curtis, Simona Costanzo, Branislav Vohnout et al. “Regular consumption of dark chocolate is associated with low serum concentrations of C-reactive protein in a healthy Italian population.” The Journal of nutrition 138, no. 10 (2008): 1939-1945.|
|↑52||Monagas, Maria, Nasiruddin Khan, Cristina Andres-Lacueva, Rosa Casas, Mireia Urpí-Sardà, Rafael Llorach, Rosa Maria Lamuela-Raventos, and Ramon Estruch. “Effect of cocoa powder on the modulation of inflammatory biomarkers in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 90, no. 5 (2009): 1144-1150.|
|↑53||Schultz, Alini, Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva, Marcia B. Aguila, and Carlos A. Mandarim-de-Lacerda. “Differences and similarities in hepatic lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis and oxidative imbalance in mice fed diets rich in fructose or sucrose.” Food & function 6, no. 5 (2015): 1684-1691.|
|↑54||Hu, Yang, Karen H. Costenbader, Xiang Gao, May Al-Daabil, Jeffrey A. Sparks, Daniel H. Solomon, Frank B. Hu, Elizabeth W. Karlson, and Bing Lu. “Sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis in women.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 100, no. 3 (2014): 959-967.|
|↑55||8 Food Ingredients That Can Cause Inflammation. Arthritis Foundation.|
|↑56||Ertek, Sibel, and Arrigo Cicero. “Impact of physical activity on inflammation: effects on cardiovascular disease risk and other inflammatory conditions.” Arch Med Sci 8, no. 5 (2012): 794-804.|
|↑57||Wang, H. Joe, Samir Zakhari, and M. Katherine Jung. “Alcohol, inflammation, and gut-liver-brain interactions in tissue damage and disease development.” World J Gastroenterol 16, no. 11 (2010): 1304-13.|