Active ingredients in brahmi
- Bacosides A and B: help enhance memory
- Sterols: lower cholesterol and pain
- Alkaloids: tranquilize and help reduce pain
- Polyphenols: fight free radical damage and reduce inflammation1
Ever wondered if a herb could make you smarter? Sounds ridiculous, but with brahmi, it’s not impossible. Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), also called “herb of grace” or water hyssop, is famously used as a medhya rasayana (nootropic drug) in ayurveda, that is a substance that enhances memory and revitalizes brain function.
Modern science has been able to validate these uses with several studies on animals and a few on humans as well.
Here’s a look at the health benefits of brahmi for both the body and the mind.
1. Improves Memory
Ayurveda uses brahmi in brain tonics, often paired with gotu kola (Centella asiatica). The powdered herb is had mixed with milk or ghee – animal fat helps the body absorb the brahmi nutrients better.
Studies have found that long-term consumption of brahmi helps improve several parameters of memory in healthy youngsters and adults as well as elderly people suffering from age-related memory loss. Those who had about 300–450 mg of standardized brahmi extract consistently for 12 weeks or more:
- Had better mental control, that is, ability to control their thoughts and emotions
- Acquired memory faster and consolidated it better
- Had stronger logical memory
- Had improved working memory, especially spatial memory – for instance, the location of objects
- Had a low rate of forgetting newly acquired memory
- Had a lower reaction time and better accuracy while identifying objects rapidly
- Showed less delay in recalling information2 3 4
Brahmi helps enhance memory in several ways. Its antioxidants fight free radicals and prevent oxidative damage in the brain, whether caused by an iron overload or toxin buildup. It also increases the levels of natural antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the prefrontal cortex, striatum, and the hippocampus – areas of the brain that are responsible for cognitive functions like information processing, mental skills, and memory.5
More interestingly, brahmi helps nerve endings grow and branch out, thereby forming more synapses between nerves in the hippocampus and amygdala, areas of the brain responsible for memory formation. This increases the volume and speed of communication between nerves. Brahmi has been found to increase protein kinase activity in the hippocampus in amnesiac rats. Protein kinases help in learning and memory, and in this case helped in recovery.6 7 8
Do note that brahmi has to be taken for at least 3 months for its memory-boosting benefits, but even then, it cannot improve all aspects of your memory. Brahmi improves 9 out of 17 parameters of free recall, chiefly short-term memory, but does not improve cognition significantly.9
Brahmi increases the production and availability of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter which helps in several functions like memory, cognition, and attention. Several medicines, including those for asthma, COPD, diarrhea, or dizziness, have been seen to lower acetylcholine levels in the brain, leading to memory loss. Brahmi also balances several other essential neurotransmitters like serotonin, dopamine, GABA, and glutamate, all of which have significant roles in brain function.
Experts recommend combining brahmi supplementation with cognitive training for the elderly. But not just the elderly, children can also benefit from brahmi supplementation.10
2. Boosts Learning
Learning is essentially processing information, storing it as memory, and recalling it at will. Your ability to learn goes down significantly as you age. You take longer to process information and cannot remember it in time. Apparently, scholars in the Vedic ages consumed brahmi to learn long verses of sacred hymns and scriptures.11
[expert_opinion expertname=’toddcaldecott’ opinion=”Translated as “consort of the divine” from the original Sanskrit, Brahmi is described in ayurveda as “medhya rasayana,” which means that it helps enhance cognition, concentration, and memory. Brahmi is also a very good herb taken before bed in vata conditions to promote a restful sleep.”]
In animals, brahmi has been seen to help with learning new motor skills. In healthy humans, both young and the elderly, as well as those who suffer from anxiety, brahmi has been seen to improve:
- The rate of verbal learning – it was seen that those who received brahmi extract were less likely to forget an old list of words when a new list was introduced12
- Paired-associated learning – a learning technique where one word is associated with another (say flower and bed); this is important in learning a new language
- Visual information processing – participants who had brahmi took less time to respond to visual cues13 14
The beneficial effect of brahmi in boosting learning can be attributed to its ability to form synapses between nerve cells. In lay terms, this means that more information can be processed more quickly, so that we learn faster and recall information more easily.
3. Improves Attention And May Cure ADHD
Brahmi can also improve your attention, a mental skill necessary for both the old and the young. In one study, participants who had brahmi did not only have more focused attention but they also paid less attention to irrelevant information.15 One reason for this is that brahmi has both a calming and an mood-lifting effect, which helps one focus better.
When trying to purchase brahmi, look for jalabrahmi or Bacopa monnieri. Gotu kola (Centella asiatica) is also often referred to as brahmi because of uts similar benefits for the brain.
Preliminary small-scale research seems to indicate that brahmi can also improve symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in kids. In one study, 19 kids with ADHD were given 50 mg of brahmi extract twice daily for 12 weeks. At the end of the period, they showed significant improvement in sentence repetition, logical memory, and paired associated learning. In another study, normal school kids who received brahmi showed a reduced reaction time to visual and auditory instructions.16
Mixing brahmi with other ayurvedic herbs or remedies may have better effects. In one study, kids who were given an ayurvedic medicine containing brahmi, ashwagandha, and tagar (in a ratio of 1.5:1:1) showed an improvement in reaction time, which indicates focused attention. The effect was enhanced when kids were also given shirodhara treatment.17 Brahmi ghritam, an ayurvedic concoction of brahmi and other cognition-boosting herbs in ghee, was also as effective in reducing some ADHD symptoms as a standard ADHD drug.18
4. May Treat Dyslexia
Ayurveda holds that balancing the three doshas (vata, pitta, and kapha) and the three gunas (sattva, rajas, and tamas) with medhya rasayana may help improve learning disabilities like dyslexia. While brahmi in itself has not been tested for this effect, researchers suggest that singly or mixed with other nootropic herbs, brahmi may help.19
5. Reduces Stress
Brahmi is an adaptogenic herb, which means that it helps the body adapt to stress. Animal studies have shown that it helps reduce the markers of stress in the brain, chiefly in the hippocampus, and normalizes certain neurotransmitter levels. Though very few human studies have been performed on this front, one study has found that brahmi can lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol and improve mood in humans too.20 21
6. Reduces Anxiety And Depression
Since brahmi can help you deal with stress, similar to the other potent ayurvedic adaptogen ashwagandha, it can also help reduce depression and anxiety which are caused by chronic stress. A few studies on the memory-boosting effects of brahmi also found that it reduced depression and anxiety in the participants after a few weeks of supplementation. Probably this also improved their memory and attention in turn.22 Brahmi also increases serotonin and regulates dopamine, two mood-enhancing neurotransmitters, which may explain how it reduces anxiety and depression.
7. May Prevent And Treat Alzheimer’s Disease
Since brahmi is a memory-enhancing herb, it is logical to expect it to have a preventive or healing effect on brain damage and neurodegenerative conditions like dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, which affect memory. A number of animal studies conducted to test the effect of brahmi on brain damage caused by various toxins show that brahmi has a potent, antioxidative effect. Though not many human studies have been performed, theoretically, brahmi can help in the following ways:
- Improves blood flow to the brain by dilating blood vessels: poor blood flow to the brain reduces supply of oxygen and nutrients and allows toxin buildup, which in turn causes oxidative damage23
- Fights free radicals in the brain whether generated by external toxins (like lead, aluminum, mercury, or other chemicals) or an iron overload in the brain24 25
- Protects nerve cells that produce acetylcholine (cholinergic cells) and increases its availability and use – in Alzheimer’s disease, these cholinergic cells are rapidly depleted
- Improves the balance between neurotransmitters like serotonin, catecholamines, GABA, and glutamate, all of which play significant roles in maintaining brain health and function26
In fact, a preliminary study on elderly Alzheimer’s patients found that consuming 300 mg brahmi extract twice a day for 6 months improved some cognitive functions and reduced irritability and insomnia in them.27 More studies are required to find the appropriate dosage.
8. May Prevent And Treat Parkinson’s Disease
Animal studies show that brahmi helps prevent and treat Parkinson’s disease in several ways in addition to fighting oxidative damage caused by toxins.
- Brahmi can reduce the aggregation of alpha-synuclein proteins in the substantia nigra, a part of the brain that produces dopamine. These protein clumps kill dopamine-producing cells. Brahmi prevents the death of the dopaminergic cells and prevents the motor symptoms typical of Parkinson’s.
- Parkinson’s patients also have changes in the levels of other neurotransmitters like acetylcholine, glutamate, and GABA. Brahmi helps balance these by various regulatory mechanisms.
- Brahmi can also maintain the integrity of the fat (lipid) composition of nerve cells, which is crucial because, as per new research, changes in the lipid composition of nerve cells may also lead to the formation of protein clumps.28
9. May Help Improve Some Symptoms Of Schizophrenia
Cognitive defects like poor attention, memory, and learning are central to schizophrenia. In schizophrenic rats, brahmi has been seen to improve cognition by reducing the density of glutamate-producing neurons in a certain part of the hippocampus. Too much glutamate leads to toxicity and kills nerves and affects cognitive abilities.29 Interestingly, brahmi was also found to increase neuron formation in another part of the hippocampus, which helped cognition. The researchers suggested that brahmi could be a novel alternative approach to improving the health condition of psychotic patients.
10. May Treat Epilepsy
Epilepsy is caused by alterations in the levels of GABA, glutamate, and dopamine. By regulating these neurotransmitters, brahmi can help reduce convulsions and inflammation brought about by epileptic seizures. It is suggested that brahmi can not only improve learning or memory deficits after an episode of seizure but consumption of brahmi ghritam can also prevent seizures to begin with.30 31
11. Protects The Brain
While human studies are pending, in animal studies, brahmi has been seen to help restore normal brain function after a brain stroke. The lack of blood supply to the brain during a stroke can starve nerve cells of oxygen and lead to their death, while the return of blood supply (reperfusion) can damage tissues and increase free radical generation. Brain stroke can also lead to short-term memory loss and loss of motor balance.
Brahmi increases blood flow to the brain without increasing blood pressure, reduces the size of the area affected by the stroke, and improves memory and muscle coordination. It also helps fight oxidative damage following reperfusion.32 33
12. Protects Against Gastric Ulcers
Brahmi extract may improve the symptoms of diarrhea in high doses, while the juice of the herb has been seen to protect against gastric ulcers. Brahmi has an antimicrobial effect on the ulcer-causing bacteria H. pylori as well as an antioxidant function. It also helps produce mucin (the slippery substance found in mucus) and increases the lifespan of mucous cells in the stomach. These help protect the stomach lining from corrosive substances.34 35
An ayurvedic medicine containing brahmi and another herb called Aegle marmelos has been found to treat irritable bowel syndrome, especially the diarrhea-predominant form.36 However, it did not work as well for the gas-predominant and painful forms of IBS. It could not prevent a relapse in a few months either. If you suffer from IBS, it’s important to consult a doctor before taking brahmi.
13. Boosts Immunity
Brahmi strengthens the innate immune response in the body even more effectively than ashwagandha or echinacea.37 Antioxidants in brahmi can also scavenge free radicals and enhance the activity of the natural antioxidants in the body.
14. Prevents Inflammation
Brahmi helps lower inflammation and pain by lowering the production of prostaglandins – these are chemicals that trigger inflammation and pain – and other inflammatory proteins. Some researchers suggest that brahmi may be as effective as morphine in reducing the perception of pain but does not have the typical side effects like drug dependence.38
It can be used to relieve joint pain, backache, muscle aches, and even headaches. Massaging the affected area with brahmi oil can help provide some temporary relief.39
15. Protects The Heart
Brahmi helps relax the heart muscles, aorta, bronchial smooth muscles, and pulmonary arteries, and improves blood flow by increasing nitrate oxide levels but without increasing blood pressure. A smooth blood flow can help prevent cardiac events. On top of that, animal studies find that regular consumption of brahmi can protect the heart from damage and hasten recovery.40 41
16. May Treat Hypothyroidism
At a very high dose, brahmi may have a thyroid-stimulating effect and help patients of hypothyroidism. In hypothyroid patients, levels of the T4 hormone remain low. In an animal study, brahmi increased the T4 levels by 41% without increasing the rate of oxidation in the liver. Rather, it increased antioxidant activity. It also did not affect the levels of T3. This indicates that brahmi exerts its influence directly on the thyroid gland.42 However, there has been no human study yet. So it’s essential to consult a doctor before you take brahmi to treat your hypothyroidism symptoms.
Combinations Of Brahmi With Other Herbs
Brahmi can be combined with other herbs for more benefits.43
- Since brahmi suppresses appetite, it should be used with digestive stimulants such as ginger or cardamom.
- It can serve as a nerve tonic when combined with ashwangandha, kushta, kappikacchu, shankhapushpi, and bala.
- For skin conditions with heat signs, brahmi can be combined with neem, manjishtha, and turmeric.
- It can be combined with fennel, cumin, and ajwain to relax the intestines.
How To Use Brahmi The Ayurvedic Way
To make brahmi tea, simply steep 1/2 teaspoon of brahmi in a cup of boiling water for a few minutes.44
The herb can be taken as ghrita (medicated ghee), medicated oil, churna (powder), svarasa (fresh juice), infusion, decoction, aristha or tincture (fermented beverage), syrup, tea, lepa (paste), and pill or eaten fresh (leaves).
- Combine brahmi and ashwagandha in a milk decoction to serve as a brain tonic.
- Make brahmi ghrita with sesame or coconut oil and massage this on the feet, large joints, and ears before sleeping to treat anxiety and depression. Brahmi ghrita is considered a potent rejuvenator.
- Apply brahmi paste on the neck to treat cough and pneumonia, especially in children. You can also use it to treat diaper rash in infants. It can also be used to reduce swellings.
- Juice brahmi leaves to relieve diarrhea in children.
- Use brahmi oil to relieve joint pain and headaches.45 46
Brahmi is found in ayurvedic medicines like:
- Sarasvataristha, a fermented beverage (tincture) used in the treatment of infertility, epilepsy, and mental disorders.
- Brahmi Ghrita
- Ratnagiri Rasa
- Brahmi Vati
- Sarasvata Curna
- Smrtisagara Rasa
Side Effects Of Brahmi
Most study participants report no serious side effects of brahmi except a stomach upset when given a high dose. But men who are planning a child may want to stay away from it. Studies on male mice indicate that at high doses, brahmi may be an anti-fertility agent, given its negative effect on sperm count and motility. However, it does not affect libido or testosterone levels.47 Pregnant and breastfeeding women are advised not to take it because of lack of research. People with slow heart rates are also discouraged from taking brahmi. However, even if you are healthy, seek medical guidance before starting to take brahmi supplements.
|↑1, ↑26||Rao, Rammohan V., Olivier Descamps, Varghese John, and Dale E. Bredesen. “Ayurvedic medicinal plants for Alzheimer’s disease: a review.” Alzheimer’s research & therapy 4, no. 3 (2012): 22.|
|↑2, ↑12||Morgan, Annette, and John Stevens. “Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 16, no. 7 (2010): 753-759.|
|↑3, ↑5||Stough, Con, Luke A. Downey, Jenny Lloyd, Beata Silber, Stephanie Redman, Chris Hutchison, Keith Wesnes, and Pradeep J. Nathan. “Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double‐blind placebo‐controlled randomized trial.” Phytotherapy Research 22, no. 12 (2008): 1629-1634.|
|↑4, ↑14||Raghav, Sangeeta, Harjeet Singh, P. K. Dalal, J. S. Srivastava, and O. P. Asthana. “Randomized controlled trial of standardized Bacopa monniera extract in age-associated memory impairment.” Indian Journal of Psychiatry 48, no. 4 (2006): 238.|
|↑6||McPhee, Grace M., Luke A. Downey, Anthony Noble, and Con Stough. “Cognitive training and Bacopa monnieri: Evidence for a combined intervention to alleviate age associated cognitive decline.” Medical hypotheses 95 (2016): 71-76.|
|↑7||Vollala, Venkata Ramana, Subramanya Upadhya, and Satheesha Nayak. “Enhanced dendritic arborization of hippocampal CA3 neurons by Bacopa monniera extract treatment in adult rats.” Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology 52, no. 3 (2011): 879-886.|
|↑8||Singh, H. K., and B. N. Dhawan. “Neuropsychopharmacological effects of the Ayurvedic nootropic Bacopa monniera Linn.(Brahmi).” Indian Journal of Pharmacology 29, no. 5 (1997): 359.|
|↑9||Pase, Matthew P., James Kean, Jerome Sarris, Chris Neale, Andrew B. Scholey, and Con Stough. “The cognitive-enhancing effects of Bacopa monnieri: a systematic review of randomized, controlled human clinical trials.” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 18, no. 7 (2012): 647-652.|
|↑10||Efficacy of Bacopa Monniera in Revitalizing Intellectual Functions in Children. Bacopin.|
|↑11, ↑23||Aguiar, Sebastian, and Thomas Borowski. “Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri.” Rejuvenation Research 16, no. 4 (2013): 313-326.|
|↑13||Stough, Con, J. Lloyd, J. Clarke, L. Downey, C. Hutchison, T. Rodgers, and P. Nathan. “The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects.” Psychopharmacology 156, no. 4 (2001): 481-484.|
|↑15, ↑22||Calabrese, Carlo, William L. Gregory, Michael Leo, Dale Kraemer, Kerry Bone, and Barry Oken. “Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.” The journal of alternative and complementary medicine 14, no. 6 (2008): 707-713.|
|↑16||Gupta, Meenakshi. “Recent researches on Ayurvedic Herbs in the Management of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in Children.” Journal of Ayurveda and Holistic Medicine (JAHM) 2, no. 9 (2015): 52-55.|
|↑17||Singhal, Harish Kumar, Abhimanyu Kumar Neetu, and Moti Rai. “Ayurvedic approach for improving reaction time of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder affected children.” Ayu 31, no. 3 (2010): 338.|
|↑18||Bhalerao, Supriya, Renuka Munshi, Tanuja Nesari, and Heenal Shah. “Evaluation of Brāhmī ghṛtam in children suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.” Ancient science of life 33, no. 2 (2013): 123.|
|↑19||Sharma, Anita, Vinod K. Gothecha, and Nisha K. Ojha. “Dyslexia: A solution through Ayurveda evidences from Ayurveda for the management of dyslexia in children: A review.” Ayu 33, no. 4 (2012): 486.|
|↑20||Sheikh, Naila, Ausaf Ahmad, Kiran Babu Siripurapu, Vijaya Kumar Kuchibhotla, Satyawan Singh, and Gautam Palit. “Effect of Bacopa monniera on stress induced changes in plasma corticosterone and brain monoamines in rats.” Journal of ethnopharmacology 111, no. 3 (2007): 671-676.|
|↑21||Benson, Sarah, Luke A. Downey, Con Stough, Mark Wetherell, Andrea Zangara, and Andrew Scholey. “An Acute, Double‐Blind, Placebo‐Controlled Cross‐over Study of 320 mg and 640 mg Doses of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on Multitasking Stress Reactivity and Mood.” Phytotherapy research 28, no. 4 (2014): 551-559.|
|↑24||Tripathi, S., A. A. Mahdi, M. Hasan, K. Mitra, and F. Mahdi. “Protective potential of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) extract on aluminum induced cerebellar toxicity and associated neuromuscular status in aged rats.” Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France) 57, no. 1 (2011): 3-15.|
|↑25||Sumathi, Thangarajan, Chandrasekar Shobana, Johnson Christinal, and Chandran Anusha. “Protective effect of Bacopa monniera on methyl mercury-induced oxidative stress in cerebellum of rats.” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 32, no. 6 (2012): 979-987.|
|↑27||Goswami, Shishir, Navneet Kumar, Vijay Thawani, Meenal Tiwari, and Manasi Thawani. “Effect of Bacopa monnieri on Cognitive functions in Alzheimerâ s disease patients.” International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health 3, no. 4 (2011).|
|↑28||Jadiya, Pooja, Asif Khan, Shreesh Raj Sammi, Supinder Kaur, Snober S. Mir, and Aamir Nazir. “Anti-Parkinsonian effects of Bacopa monnieri: insights from transgenic and pharmacological Caenorhabditis elegans models of Parkinson’s disease.” Biochemical and biophysical research communications 413, no. 4 (2011): 605-610.|
|↑29||Wetchateng, Thanitsara, and Pritsana Piyabhan. “Cognitive enhancement effects of Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) on novel object recognition and neuronal density in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus in sub-chronic phencyclidine administration rat model of schizophrenia.” Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand= Chotmaihet thangphaet 98 (2015): S56-63.|
|↑30||Shanmugasundaram, E. R. B., GK Mohammed Akbar, and K. Radha Shanmugasundaram. “Brahmighritham, an Ayurvedic herbal formula for the control of epilepsy.” Journal of ethnopharmacology 33, no. 3 (1991): 269-276.|
|↑31||Mathew, Jobin, Jes Paul, M. S. Nandhu, and C. S. Paulose. “Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A for ameliorating epilepsy associated behavioral deficits.” Fitoterapia 81, no. 5 (2010): 315-322.|
|↑32||Saraf, Manish Kumar, Sudesh Prabhakar, and Akshay Anand. “Neuroprotective effect of Bacopa monniera on ischemia induced brain injury.” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 97, no. 2 (2010): 192-197.|
|↑33||Kamkaew, Natakorn, C. Norman Scholfield, Kornkanok Ingkaninan, Niwat Taepavarapruk, and Krongkarn Chootip. “Bacopa monnieri increases cerebral blood flow in rat independent of blood pressure.” Phytotherapy Research 27, no. 1 (2013): 135-138.|
|↑34||Sairam, K., Ch V. Rao, M. Dora Babu, and R. K. Goel. “Prophylactic and curative effects of Bacopa monniera in gastric ulcer models.” Phytomedicine 8, no. 6 (2001): 423-430.|
|↑35||Goel, R. K., K. Sairam, M. Dora Babu, I. A. Tavares, and A. Raman. “In vitro evaluation of Bacopa monniera on anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and accumulation of prostaglandins.” Phytomedicine 10, no. 6-7 (2003): 523-527.|
|↑36||Yadav, S. K., A. K. Jain, S. N. Tripathi, and J. P. Gupta. “Irritable bowel syndrome: therapeutic evaluation of indigenous drugs.” The Indian journal of medical research 90 (1989): 496-503.|
|↑37||Yamada, Koji, Pham Hung, Tae Kyu Park, Pyo Jam Park, and Beong Ou Lim. “A comparison of the immunostimulatory effects of the medicinal herbs Echinacea, Ashwagandha and Brahmi.” Journal of ethnopharmacology 137, no. 1 (2011): 231-235.|
|↑38||Rauf, Khalid, Fazal Subhan, A. M. Al-Othman, I. Khan, A. Zarrelli, and M. R. Shah. “Preclinical profile of bacopasides from Bacopa monnieri (BM) as an emerging class of therapeutics for management of chronic pains.” Current medicinal chemistry 20, no. 8 (2013): 1028-1037.|
|↑39, ↑43||Pole, Sebastian. Ayurvedic medicine: the principles of traditional practice. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2006.|
|↑40||Mathur, Deepali, Kritika Goyal, Veena Koul, and Akshay Anand. “The molecular links of re-emerging therapy: a review of evidence of Brahmi (Bacopa monniera).” Frontiers in pharmacology 7 (2016): 44.|
|↑41||Srimachai, Sirintorn, Sylvie Devaux, Celine Demougeot, Sarawut Kumphune, Nina D. Ullrich, Ernst Niggli, Kornkanok Ingkaninan et al. “Bacopa monnieri extract increases rat coronary flow and protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.” BMC complementary and alternative medicine 17, no. 1 (2017): 117.|
|↑42||Kar, A., S. Panda, and S. Bharti. “Relative efficacy of three medicinal plant extracts in the alteration of thyroid hormone concentrations in male mice.” Journal of ethnopharmacology 81, no. 2 (2002): 281-285.|
|↑44||Lad, V., 1999. The complete book of Ayurvedic home remedies. Harmony.|
|↑45||Brahmi: “Herb of Grace”. California College of Ayurveda.|
|↑46||Sullivan, Nicholas. “Refining the Mind Brahmi: An Herb Review.”|
|↑47||Singh, Akanksha, and Shio Kumar Singh. “Evaluation of antifertility potential of Brahmi in male mouse.” Contraception 79, no. 1 (2009): 71-79.|