Understanding The Gravity Of The Diabetes Epidemic.

Understanding The Gravity Of The Diabetes Epidemic.
Understanding The Gravity Of The Diabetes Epidemic.

November 14 – World Diabetes Day!!

The World Diabetes Day campaign is led by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and its member associations. It engages millions of people worldwide in diabetes advocacy and awareness.

World Diabetes Day  is celebrated every year on November 14. Why this date? We celebrate to mark the birthday of Frederick Banting who, along with Charles Best, discovered insulin in 1921. world Diabetes Day was created in 1991 by the IDF and the World Health Organization in response to great concern about growing epidemic that diabetes now poses.

The Global Diabetes Epidemic:

Diabetes is estimated to affect 29,1 million Americans, or 9,3 % of the US population (2012 data). Of these, as many as 27% may be undiagnosed. Another 86 million American adults are estimated to have prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose [IFG], impaired glucose tolerance [IGT], or both). Type 1 diabetes, formerly known as insulin-dependent or juvenile-onset diabetes, is now known to affect people of all ages, but remains the predominant form in children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes, formerly known as noninsulin-dependent or adult-onset diabetes, also affects people of all

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ages but is the predominant form in adults, affecting an estimated 90% to 95% of adults with diabetes.

Financial implications: The burden of diabetes is both physical and financial. Diabetes increases the risk of death and disability, and the prevalence of comorbidities and complications is high. In 2010, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death. The total costs of diagnosed diabetes have risen to $245 billion in 2012 from $174 billion in 2007, when the cost was last examined.

Physical Disabilities: Estimates suggest that 20% to 50% of people with diabetes experience some degree of physical disability (eg, activity limitations, restricted activity days, inability to work) as a result of their diabetes condition. Interestingly, people with type 2 diabetes, especially those treated with insulin, report greater disability than those with type 1 diabetes. The presence of diabetes complications (eg, retinopathy, nephropathy, coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, neuropathy, cerebrovascular disease) is a major determinant of disability, and degree of disability is proportional to the duration of diabetes.

Understanding types and root causes of Diabetes:

Knowledge of how to properly manage diabetes cannot be achieved without

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at least a cursory understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is caused by an absolute deficiency of insulin secretion that results from destruction of the pancreatic β cells; it can be immune-mediated or idiopathic (ie, genetic). Patients with immune-mediated diabetes are more prone to other autoimmune disorders. The rate of destruction of pancreatic β cells in type 1 diabetes is quite variable. In general, however, β-cell destruction occurs rapidly in children and adolescents and gradually in adults. Consequently, children and adolescents tend to have minimal β-cell function and insulin production at diagnosis, and their clinical presentation reflects this deficiency; many younger patients present with diabetic ketoacidosis, a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by both insulin resistance–a reduced physiologic response to circulating insulin in insulin-sensitive tissues (eg, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue)– and a deficiency in insulin secretion.

Expressed in simple language, lack of insulin produce high blood sugar level. Such high blood sugar runs through the blood vessels of our body doing damages which result with complication mentioned above.

Diagnosis and Treatment
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options for Diabetes:

A number of treatment guidelines are available to assist clinicians in diabetes management. Measures of glucose control include Hemoglobin A1C, Fasting Plasma Glucose FPG, and Postprandial Glucose (PPG) are the most important. It means that each patient should be measured daily fasting and postprandial glycemia. Patients should be part of the diabetes treatment, precisely measuring their sugar which is an indicator of awareness of disease and good control.

Hemoglobin A1C should be between 6,5 % and 7%, FPG 70-130 mg/dL and PPG <180 mg/ dL.
Various tablets and/or insulin /not insulin injections, which is used in the diabetic cure are not the only help, while non-pharmacological interventions, including diet and physical activity are inevitable.
Life style modification, including medical nutrition therapy, physical activity, and weight loss (when appropriate), is the cornerstone of therapy in patients with diabetes.

Nutritional Recommendations:

Specific nutritional recommendations in patients with diabetes include :

– limiting intake of carbohydrate to 40% to 65% of daily caloric intake (but not less than 130 g per day),
– dietary cholesterol to

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less than 200 mg to 300 mg per day,
– total dietary fat to 20% to 35% of total calories,
– saturated fat to less than 7% to 10% of total calories, and
– increasing dietary fiber intake to 20 g to 50 g per day or 15 g to 25 g per 1000 calories per day;
– protein intake should constitute 15% to 30% of total daily caloric intake.
– physical activity in patients with diabetes is 150 to 175 minutes per week of moderate-intensity activity that include daily walk for half an hour high intensity

These dietary modifications have been shown to reduce absolute A1C by 0.25% to 2.9% within 3 to 6 months; results vary with type and duration of diabetes.

Used statistics from the USA is very similar in other countries, but this is the most accurate. Also the way of treating and managing diabetes are similar.

Healthy Living and Diabetes is the World Diabetes Day theme for 2014-2016.

World Diabetes Day is celebrated worldwide by over 200 member associations of the International Diabetes Federation in more than 160 countries and territories, all

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Member States of the United Nations, as well as by other associations and organizations, companies, healthcare professionals and people living with diabetes and their families.

If you have diabetes think diabetes.